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Title: Computational Flow Dynamic Analysis in Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus Formation Risk: A Review
Authors: Valvez, Sara 
Oliveira-Santos, Manuel 
Piedade, A. P. 
Gonçalves, Lino 
Amaro, Ana M. 
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; left atrial appendage; thrombus formation; hemodynamics; atrial fibrillation
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UIDB/00285/2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume: 13
Issue: 14
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia characterized by irregular and rapid electrical activity in the atria, leading to ineffective contraction and poor blood flow. More than 90% of the left atrial (LA) thrombi that cause thromboembolic events during atrial fibrillation (AF) develop in the left atrial appendage (LAA). AF modifies the hemodynamics of the left atrium, which can result in thrombosis of the LAA, systemic embolism, and stroke. The current options to reduce thromboembolic events are oral anticoagulation, surgical LAA exclusion, or percutaneous LAA occlusion. However, the mechanism underlying thrombus development in the LAA remains poorly understood. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis can be used to better understand the risk of thrombus formation and subsequent embolic events. CFD enables the simulation and visualization of blood flow patterns within the heart, including complex structures such as the LAA. Using CFD, researchers can analyze the hemodynamics of blood flow, identify areas of stagnation or turbulence, and predict the risk of thrombus formation. The correlation between blood flow dynamics, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke has been highlighted by CFD studies investigating the underlying mechanism of thrombus formation in the LAA. This review study intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the factors involved in thrombus formation and their implications for clinical practice by synthesizing the insights acquired from these CFD studies.
ISSN: 2076-3417
DOI: 10.3390/app13148201
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Eng.Mecânica - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CEMMPRE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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