Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Directly Exploring the Neural Correlates of Feedback-Related Reward Saliency and Valence During Real-Time fMRI-Based Neurofeedback
Authors: Direito, Bruno 
Ramos, Manuel 
Pereira, João 
Sayal, Alexandre 
Sousa, Teresa 
Castelo-Branco, Miguel 
Keywords: neurofeedback; reward; real-time fMRI (rtfMRI); volitional modulation; adaptive threshold
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Project: BRAINTRAIN grant, a Collaborative Project supported by the European Commission, under the Health Cooperation Work Programme of the 7th Framework Programme, under the Grant Agreement No. 602186 ( 
FCT - PTDC/PSIGER/30852/2017 
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Volume: 14
Abstract: Introduction: The potential therapeutic efficacy of real-time fMRI Neurofeedback has received increasing attention in a variety of psychological and neurological disorders and as a tool to probe cognition. Despite its growing popularity, the success rate varies significantly, and the underlying neural mechanisms are still a matter of debate. The question whether an individually tailored framework positively influences neurofeedback success remains largely unexplored. Methods: To address this question, participants were trained to modulate the activity of a target brain region, the visual motion area hMT+/V5, based on the performance of three imagery tasks with increasing complexity: imagery of a static dot, imagery of a moving dot with two and with four opposite directions. Participants received auditory feedback in the form of vocalizations with either negative, neutral or positive valence. The modulation thresholds were defined for each participant according to the maximum BOLD signal change of their target region during the localizer run. Results: We found that 4 out of 10 participants were able to modulate brain activity in this region-of-interest during neurofeedback training. This rate of success (40%) is consistent with the neurofeedback literature. Whole-brain analysis revealed the recruitment of specific cortical regions involved in cognitive control, reward monitoring, and feedback processing during neurofeedback training. Individually tailored feedback thresholds did not correlate with the success level. We found region-dependent neuromodulation profiles associated with task complexity and feedback valence. Discussion: Findings support the strategic role of task complexity and feedback valence on the modulation of the network nodes involved in monitoring and feedback control, key variables in neurofeedback frameworks optimization. Considering the elaborate design, the small sample size here tested (N = 10) impairs external validity in comparison to our previous studies. Future work will address this limitation. Ultimately, our results contribute to the discussion of individually tailored solutions, and justify further investigation concerning volitional control over brain activity.
ISSN: 1662-5161
DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.578119
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIBIT - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D ICNAS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat
fnhum-14-578119.pdf4.59 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Show full item record


checked on Nov 20, 2023


checked on Nov 2, 2023

Page view(s)

checked on Nov 28, 2023


checked on Nov 28, 2023

Google ScholarTM




This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons