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Title: Nanobody-Based Theranostic Agents for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Radiolabeling Strategies
Authors: Hrynchak, Ivanna 
Santos, Liliana 
Falcão, Amílcar 
Gomes, Célia M. 
Abrunhosa, Antero J. 
Keywords: nanobodies; targeted radionuclide therapy; HER2 breast cancer; radiolabeling strategies; nuclear imaging
Issue Date: 4-Oct-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Project: FCT - PD/BDE/150331/2019 
FCT - PD/BDE/150707/2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume: 22
Issue: 19
Abstract: The overexpression of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer (BC) has been associated with a more aggressive tumor subtype, poorer prognosis and shorter overall survival. In this context, the development of HER2-targeted radiotracers is crucial to provide a non-invasive assessment of HER2 expression to select patients for HER2-targeted therapies, monitor response and identify those who become resistant. Antibodies represent ideal candidates for this purpose, as they provide high contrast images for diagnosis and low toxicity in the therapeutic setting. Of those, nanobodies (Nb) are of particular interest considering their favorable kinetics, crossing of relevant biological membranes and intratumoral distribution. The purpose of this review is to highlight the unique characteristics and advantages of Nb-based radiotracers in BC imaging and therapy. Additionally, radiolabeling methods for Nb including direct labeling, indirect labeling via prosthetic group and indirect labeling via complexation will be discussed, reporting advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, the preclinical to clinical translation of radiolabeled Nbs as promising theranostic agents will be reported.
ISSN: 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms221910745
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D ICNAS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBIT - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D ICBR - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBB - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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