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Title: Characterization of Static Strength, Vertical Jumping, and Isokinetic Strength in Soccer Players According to Age, Competitive Level, and Field Position
Authors: Gouveia, João Nuno
França, Cíntia
Martins, Francisco
Henriques, Ricardo 
Nascimento, Marcelo de Maio
Ihle, Andreas
Sarmento, Hugo 
Przednowek, Krzysztof
Martinho, Diogo V. 
Gouveia, Elvio Rúbio 
Keywords: muscle strength; peak torque; total work; average power; countermovement jump; squat jump; football
Issue Date: 18-Jan-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: We acknowledge support from the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES—Overcoming vulnerability: life course perspectives, which is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant number: 51NF40-185901). Moreover, AI acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant number: 10001C_189407). C.F., F.M., and E.G. acknowledge support from LARSyS—Portuguese national funding agency for science, research, and technology (FCT) pluriannual funding 2020–2023 (Reference: UIDB/50009/2020). This work was supported by Instituto de Desenvolvimento Empresarial da Região Autónoma da Madeira under the Regional Project SAFE - Safe Football Entrance (Ref. M1420-01-0247-FEDER-000067) co-financed by “Madeira 14-20”. 
Serial title, monograph or event: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 20
Issue: 3
Abstract: Muscular strength is strongly related to speed and agility tasks, which have been described as the most decisive actions preceding goals in the soccer game. This study aimed to characterize the players' strength indicators and to analyze the variation associated with age, competition level, and positional role. Eighty-three male soccer players from A team (n = 22), B team (n = 17), U-23 (n = 19), and U-19 (n = 25) participated in this study. Handgrip strength was assessed using a hand dynamometer (Jamar Plus+), countermovement jump (CMJ) and the squat jump (SJ) were evaluated using Optojump Next, and a Biodex System 4 Pro Dynamometer was used to assess the isokinetic strength of knee extension/flexion. Team A players showed increased lower-body strength compared to their peers, mainly through their increased vertical jumping capacity (i.e., CMJ and SJ; ps < 0.019), and superior performance in isokinetic assessments (i.e., peak torque, total work, and average power). Overall, older players outperformed their younger peers regarding vertical jumping, static strength, and average power in isokinetic strength (ps < 0.005). This study emphasizes the superior strength levels of professional soccer players compared with their lower-division peers, even after controlling by age. This information is of great value to sports agents and coaches, underlining the need to design and include strength-specific content during soccer training.
ISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20031799
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCDEF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIDAF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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