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Title: Short Peripheral Venous Catheters Contamination and the Dangers of Bloodstream Infection in Portugal: An Analytic Study
Authors: Osório, Nádia 
Oliveira, Vânia
Costa, Maria Inês 
Santos-Costa, Paulo
Serambeque, Beatriz 
Gama, Fernando
Adriano, David
Graveto, João
Parreira, Pedro 
Salgueiro-Oliveira, Anabela
Keywords: peripheral intravenous catheter; Staphylococcus spp.; virulence factors; antibiotic resistance
Issue Date: 9-Mar-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: project “Transfer of technological innovations to nursing practice: a contribution to the prevention of infections” number 024371, funded by the European Regional Development Fund—FEDER through the Operational Program Competitiveness and Internationalization of PORTUGAL 2020. 
FCT - POPH/FSE programs (scholarships SFRH/BD/136487/2018 and 2020.07672.BD) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Microorganisms
Volume: 11
Issue: 3
Abstract: Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the most used vascular access devices in the world. However, failure rates remain considerably high, with complications such as PVC-related infections posing significant threats to patients' well-being. In Portugal, studies evaluating the contamination of these vascular medical devices and characterizing the associated microorganisms are scarce and lack insight into potential virulence factors. To address this gap, we analyzed 110 PVC tips collected in a large tertiary hospital in Portugal. Experiments followed Maki et al.'s semi-quantitative method for microbiological diagnosis. Staphylococcus spp. were subsequently studied for the antimicrobial susceptibility profile by disc diffusion method and based on the cefoxitin phenotype, were further classified into strains resistant to methicillin. Screening for the mecA gene was also done by a polymerase chain reaction and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)-vancomycin as determined by E-test, proteolytic and hemolytic activity on skimmed milk 1% plate and blood agar, respectively. The biofilm formation was evaluated on microplate reading through iodonitrotetrazolium chloride 95% (INT). Overall, 30% of PVCs were contaminated, and the most prevalent genus was Staphylococcus spp., 48.8%. This genus presented resistance to penicillin (91%), erythromycin (82%), ciprofloxacin (64%), and cefoxitin (59%). Thus, 59% of strains were considered resistant to methicillin; however, we detected the mecA gene in 82% of the isolates tested. Regarding the virulence factors, 36.4% presented α-hemolysis and 22.7% β-hemolysis, 63.6% presented a positive result for the production of proteases, and 63.6% presented a biofilm formation capacity. Nearly 36.4% were simultaneously resistant to methicillin and showed expression of proteases and/or hemolysins, biofilm formation, and the MIC to vancomycin were greater than 2 µg/mL. Conclusion: PVCs were mainly contaminated with Staphylococcus spp., with high pathogenicity and resistance to antibiotics. The production of virulence factors strengthens the attachment and the permanence to the catheter's lumen. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to mitigate such results and enhance the quality and safety of the care provided in this field.
ISSN: 2076-2607
DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms11030709
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D QFM-UC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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