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Title: Physical Fitness and Body Composition of Youth Referees in Invasion Games
Authors: Gouveia, Elvio Rúbio 
Lopes, Helder
Nascimento, Marcelo de Maio
Clemente, Filipe M. 
Sarmento, Hugo 
Ihle, Andreas
Ferrari, Gerson
Luz, Pedro
Caldeira, Henrique
Marques, Adilson
Keywords: agility; body fatness; cardiorespiratory fitness; children and adolescents; collective sports; physical education; strength; sports practice; referees’ activity
Issue Date: 30-Mar-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: We acknowledge support from the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES—Overcoming vulnerability: life course perspectives, which is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant number: 51NF40-185901). Moreover, A.I. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant number: 10001C_189407). É.R.G. acknowledges support from LARSyS—Portuguese national funding agency for science, research, and technology (FCT) pluriannual funding 2020–2023 (Reference: ITI-LX UIDP/50009/2020—IST-ID). Filipe Manuel Clemente and this work are funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia/Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior through national funds, and when applicable, co-funded by EU funds under the project UIDB/50008/2020. 
Serial title, monograph or event: Children
Volume: 10
Issue: 4
Abstract: Referees’ activity can be an instrument for training students with an impact on health-related physical fitness (PF). This study aimed to investigate the differences in PF and body composition between students without sports practice (G1), students with regular sports practice (G2), and student referees in team invasion games (G3). Methods: This study followed a cross-sectional design. The sample comprised 45 male students between 14 and 20 years old (16.40 1.85). Three groups (G1, G2, and G3) of 15 participants each were selected. PF was assessed by a 20 m shuttle run, change-of-direction test, and standing long jump. Body composition was determined by body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) predicted by skinfold. Results: After controlling for age as a covariate, the block of variables used to characterize PF was statistically different between sports practice groups favoring student referees (p < 0.001; r = 0.26). Similar results were achieved for body composition (i.e., BMI and %BF) (p < 0.001; r = 0.17). However, when the dependent variables were evaluated separately, there were only differences between groups in %BF (p = 0.007; r = 0.21). Student referees had statistically significantly lower values than the remaining groups. Conclusion: Refereeing activity benefits PF related to health and performance, including body composition. This study confirms the benefits related to health in children and adolescents who are involved in refereeing activity.
ISSN: 2227-9067
DOI: 10.3390/children10040650
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCDEF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIDAF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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