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Title: Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for M2 Microglial Polarization Using Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles
Authors: Machado-Pereira, Marta
Santos, Tiago 
Ferreira, Lino 
Bernardino, Liliana 
Ferreira, Raquel
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Hindawi
Project: POCI- 01-0145-FEDER-007491 
FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 041099 
EXPL/ BIM-MED/0822/2013 
SFRH/BPD/ 94228/2013 
L’Oréal-UNESCO Portugal for Women in Science 
Serial title, monograph or event: Mediators of Inflammation
Volume: 2017
Abstract: Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP) as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2). RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that RA-NP inhibited LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promoted arginase-1 and interleukin-4 production. Additionally, RA-NP induced a ramified microglia morphology (indicative of M2 state), promoting tissue viability, particularly neuronal survival, and restored the expression of postsynaptic protein-95 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to an inflammatory challenge. RA-NP also proved to be more efficient than the free equivalent RA concentration. Altogether, our data indicate that RA-NP may be envisioned as a promising therapeutic agent for brain inflammatory diseases.
ISSN: 0962-9351
DOI: 10.1155/2017/6742427
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:IIIUC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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