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Title: Heart and Brain Responses to Real Versus Simulated Chess Games in Trained Chess Players: A Quantitative EEG and HRV Study
Authors: Fuentes-García, Juan Pedro
Pereira, Telmo
Castro, Maria António 
Carvalho Santos, António
Villafaina, Santos
Keywords: chess; brain; attention; virtual reality; EEG; autonomic modulation
Issue Date: 10-Dec-2019
Publisher: MDPI
Project: Ministry of Economy and Infrastructure of the Junta de Extremadura through the European Regional Development Fund 
grant from the regional department of economy and infrastructure of the Government of Extremadura and the European Social Fund (PD16008) and by a research mobility grant of the AUIP – Asociación Universitaria Iberoamericana de Postgrado 
Serial title, monograph or event: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 16
Issue: 24
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate how the heart and the brain react to playing chess with a computer versus in a real context in chess players. We also aim to investigate if familiarization with simulated practice leads to changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum. We designed a cross-sectional study, enrolling 27 chess players. They were randomly assigned to 3 minutes plus 2-second chess games: one with a computer (simulated scenario), and another in a real context. Additionally, participants were divided into two groups according to their level of familiarization of playing chess in a computer context. While they were playing, HRV and EEG were continuously recorded. Differences in HRV and EEG theta power spectrum between playing chess in a real or a simulated scenario were not found in chess players (p-value > 0.05). When participants were divided into groups (familiarized and unfamiliarized with simulated chess practice), significant differences were observed in HRV and EEG (p-value < 0.05). The EEG theta power spectrum was significantly lower, and HRV was higher in unfamiliarized players during the simulated scenario, which could indicate that they were less focused in a simulated environment than in a real context. Therefore, familiarization with simulated environments should be taken into account during the training process to achieve the best performance.
ISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16245021
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CEMMPRE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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