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Title: Bacterial Metabolites Produced Under Iron Limitation Kill Pinewood Nematode and Attract Caenorhabditis elegans
Authors: Proença, Diogo Neves 
Heine, Thomas
Senges, Christoph H R
Bandow, Julia E
Morais, Paula V
Tischler, Dirk
Keywords: metallophores; siderophore; nematode; Erwinia; Rouxiella; Caenorhabditis elegans; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; secondary metabolites
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Project: UID/EMS/00285/2013 
COST Action FP1305 – Biolink: Linking belowground biodiversity and ecosystem function in European forests 
Junior Research Grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BakSolEx 033R147) 
German Research Foundation (BA 4193/6-1) 
German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) for the mass spectrometer (Forschungsgroßgeräte der Länder) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Microbiology
Volume: 10
Abstract: Pine Wilt Disease (PWD) is caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pinewood nematode, and affects several species of pine trees worldwide. The ecosystem of the Pinus pinaster trees was investigated as a source of bacteria producing metabolites affecting this ecosystem: P. pinaster trees as target-plant, nematode as disease effector and its insect-vector as shuttle. For example, metals and metal-carrying compounds contribute to the complex tree-ecosystems. This work aimed to detect novel secondary metabolites like metallophores and related molecules produced under iron limitation by PWD-associated bacteria and to test their activity on nematodes. After screening 357 bacterial strains from Portugal and United States, two promising metallophore-producing strains Erwinia sp. A41C3 and Rouxiella sp. Arv20#4.1 were chosen and investigated in more detail. The genomes of these strains were sequenced, analyzed, and used to detect genetic potential for secondary metabolite production. A combinatorial approach of liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) linked to molecular networking was used to describe these compounds. Two major metabolites were detected by HPLC analyses and described. One HPLC fraction of strain Arv20#4.1 showed to be a hydroxamate-type siderophore with higher affinity for chelation of Cu. The HPLC fraction of strain A41C3 with highest metal affinity showed to be a catecholate-type siderophore with higher affinity for chelation of Fe. LC-MS allowed the identification of several desferrioxamines from strain Arv20#4.1, in special desferrioxamine E, but no hit was obtained in case of strain A41C3 which might indicate that it is something new. Bacteria and their culture supernatants showed ability to attract C. elegans. HPLC fractions of those supernatant-extracts of Erwinia strain A41C3, enriched with secondary metabolites such as siderophores, were able to kill pinewood nematode. These results suggest that metabolites secreted under iron limitation have potential to biocontrol B. xylophilus and for management of Pine Wilt Disease.
ISSN: 1664-302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02166
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CEMMPRE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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