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Title: Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: comparative analysis of classical and latent presentation
Authors: Fadiga, Lúcia 
Saraiva, Joana 
Catarino, Diana 
Frade, João
Melo, Miguel 
Paiva, Isabel
Keywords: Autoimmune disease; Diabetes complications; Diabetes mellitus; type 1; Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults; Insulin resistance
Issue Date: 3-Dec-2020
Publisher: Springer Nature
Serial title, monograph or event: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
Volume: 12
Issue: 1
Abstract: Introduction: Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes (AID) has two different phenotypes: classic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with insulin requirement just after diagnosis, and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The purpose of this study is to characterize patients with AID followed on a tertiary centre, comparing classic T1DM and LADA. Methods: We collected data from patients with diabetes and positive islet autoantibodies, aged 30 years old and over at diagnosis. Patients who started insulin in the first 6 months were classified as T1DM and patients with no insulin requirements in the first 6 months were classified as LADA. Data regarding clinical presentation, autoantibodies, A1C and C-peptide at diagnosis, pharmacologic treatment and complications were analysed. Results: We included 92 patients, 46 with classic T1DM and 46 with LADA. The percentage of females was 50% in T1DM group and 52.1% in LADA group. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years (IQR–15) for T1DM and 42 years (IQR–15) for LADA (p = 0.057). The median time between diagnosis of diabetes and diagnosis of autoimmune aetiology was 0 months in T1DM group and 60 months in LADA group (p < 0.001). The mean BMI at diagnosis was 24.1 kg/ m2 in T1DM group and 26.1 kg/m2 in LADA group (p = 0.042). In T1DM group, 67.4% of the patients had more than one positive autoantibody, comparing to 41.3% of LADA patients (p = 0.012). There was no statistical difference in what concerns to title of GAD autoantibodies, A1C and C-peptide at diagnosis of autoimmune aetiology. The presence of symptoms at diagnosis was associated with T1DM group (p < 0.001). The median daily insulin dose was 40 IU for T1DM (0.58 IU/kg) and 33.5 IU for LADA (0.57 IU/kg), with no statistical difference. LADA patients were more often under non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (p = 0.001). At 10 years follow up, 21.1% of T1DM patients and 63.3% of LADA patients had microvascular complications (p = 0.004). Diabetic nephropathy was present in 23.5% of T1DM patients and 53.3% of LADA patients (p = 0.047). At the last evaluation, 55.6% of T1DM and 82.6% of LADA patients had metabolic syndrome and this difference was independent of diabetes duration. Conclusion: Patients with classic T1DM presented more often with symptoms, lower BMI and higher number of autoantibodies, which may be related to a more aggressive autoimmune process. Patients with LADA developed more frequently microvascular complications for the same disease duration, namely diabetic nephropathy, and had more often metabolic syndrome.
ISSN: 1758-5996
DOI: 10.1186/s13098-020-00616-1
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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