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Title: Estimation of Risk to the Eco-Environment and Human Health of Using Heavy Metals in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India
Authors: Kumar, Amit
Cabral-Pinto, Marina
Kumar, Amit
Kumar, Munesh
Dinis, Pedro A. 
Keywords: risk; heavy metal; human health; pollution indices; soil
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UID/GEO/04035/2019 (GeoBioTec Research Centre) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume: 10
Issue: 20
Abstract: In the modern era, due to the rapid increase in urbanization and industrialization in the vicinity of the Himalayas, heavy metals contamination in soil has become a key priority for researchers working globally; however, evaluation of the human and ecological risks mainly in hilly areas remains limited. In this study, we analyzed indices like the contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (DC), enrichment factor (EF), geochemical index (Igeo), pollution ecological risk index (PERI), and pollution load index (PLI), along with cancer risk (CR) and hazard indices (HI), to ascertain the eco-environmental and human risks of using heavy metals in datasets collected from 168 sampling locations in Uttarakhand, India. The evaluation calculated of Igeo, EF, and CF suggests that represented soil samples were moderately contaminated and highly augmented with Rb, while PERI (75.56) advocates a low ecological risk. Further, PLI and DC (PLI: 1.26; DC: 36.66) show a possible health risk for the native population in the vicinity of the studied catchment. The hazard index (HI) is estimated greater than 1 (HI > 1) for Cr and Mn, representing a possible risk for cancer. However, adults are free from cancer risk, and other studied elements have been reported as noncarcinogenic. This assessment gives important information to policymakers, environmentalists, and foresters for taking mitigation measures in advance to mitigate the potential future risk of soil pollution on humans, ecology, and the environment.
ISSN: 2076-3417
DOI: 10.3390/app10207078
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D MARE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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