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Title: Modulation of Organogenesis and Somatic Embryogenesis by Ethylene: An Overview
Authors: Neves, Mariana 
Correia, Sandra 
Cavaleiro, Carlos 
Canhoto, Jorge 
Keywords: ethylene biosynthesis; ethylene inhibitors; in vitro culture; plant hormones; S-adenosylmethionine; stress responses
Issue Date: 14-Jun-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Project: FCT - PhD Fellowship, with reference 2020.05137.BD 
ReNATURE project (CENTRO-01-0145) 
P2020|COMPETE grant number PTDC/BAA-AGR/32265/2017 
project BP4BP – Tamarillo breeding: better plants for better products 
Serial title, monograph or event: Plants
Volume: 10
Issue: 6
Abstract: Ethylene is a plant hormone controlling physiological and developmental processes such as fruit maturation, hairy root formation, and leaf abscission. Its effect on regeneration systems, such as organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis (SE), has been studied, and progress in molecular biology techniques have contributed to unveiling the mechanisms behind its effects. The influence of ethylene on regeneration should not be overlooked. This compound affects regeneration differently, depending on the species, genotype, and explant. In some species, ethylene seems to revert recalcitrance in genotypes with low regeneration capacity. However, its effect is not additive, since in genotypes with high regeneration capacity this ability decreases in the presence of ethylene precursors, suggesting that regeneration is modulated by ethylene. Several lines of evidence have shown that the role of ethylene in regeneration is markedly connected to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as to hormonal-crosstalk, in particular with key regeneration hormones and growth regulators of the auxin and cytokinin families. Transcriptional factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family are regulated by ethylene and strongly connected to SE induction. Thus, an evident connection between ethylene, stress responses, and regeneration capacity is markedly established. In this review the effect of ethylene and the way it interacts with other players during organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is discussed. Further studies on the regulation of ERF gene expression induced by ethylene during regeneration can contribute to new insights on the exact role of ethylene in these processes. A possible role in epigenetic modifications should be considered, since some ethylene signaling components are directly related to histone acetylation.
ISSN: 2223-7747
DOI: 10.3390/plants10061208
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CFE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIEPQPF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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