Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/104562
Title: The Hamstrings: Anatomic and Physiologic Variations and Their Potential Relationships With Injury Risk
Authors: Afonso, José
Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia 
Clemente, Filipe M
Aquino, Michele
Nikolaidis, Pantelis T
Sarmento, Hugo 
Fílter, Alberto
Olivares-Jabalera, Jesús
Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo
Keywords: hamstrings injuries; interindividual variation; kinesiology; muscle architecture; exercise prescription; hamstrings anatomy
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Physiology
Volume: 12
Abstract: The incidence and recurrence of hamstrings injuries are very high in sports, posing elevated performance and financial-related costs. Attempts to identify the risk factors involved in predicting vulnerability to hamstrings injury is important for designing exercise-based programs that aim to mitigate the rate and severity of hamstrings injuries and improve rehabilitation strategies. However, research has shown that non-modifiable risk factors may play a greater role than modifiable risk factors. Recognizing non-modifiable risk factors and understanding their implications will afford the prescription of better suited exercise programs, i.e., that are more respectful of the individual characteristics. In a nutshell, non-modifiable risk factors can still be acted upon, even if indirectly. In this context, an underexplored topic is how intra and inter- individual anatomic and physiologic variations in hamstrings (e.g., muscle bellies, fiber types, tendon length, aponeurosis width, attachment sites, sex- and age-related differences) concur to alter hamstrings injuries risk. Some anatomic and physiologic variations may be modifiable through exercise interventions (e.g., cross-sectional area), while others may not (e.g., supernumerary muscle bellies). This apparent dichotomy may hide a greater complexity, i.e., there may be risk factors that are partially modifiable. Therefore, we explored the available information on the anatomic variations of the hamstrings, providing a deeper insight into the individual risk factors for hamstrings injuries and contributing with better knowledge and potential applications toward a more individualized exercise prescription.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/104562
ISSN: 1664-042X
DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.694604
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIDAF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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