Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: The Hamstrings: Anatomic and Physiologic Variations and Their Potential Relationships With Injury Risk
Authors: Afonso, José
Rocha-Rodrigues, Silvia 
Clemente, Filipe M
Aquino, Michele
Nikolaidis, Pantelis T
Sarmento, Hugo 
Fílter, Alberto
Olivares-Jabalera, Jesús
Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo
Keywords: hamstrings injuries; interindividual variation; kinesiology; muscle architecture; exercise prescription; hamstrings anatomy
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Physiology
Volume: 12
Abstract: The incidence and recurrence of hamstrings injuries are very high in sports, posing elevated performance and financial-related costs. Attempts to identify the risk factors involved in predicting vulnerability to hamstrings injury is important for designing exercise-based programs that aim to mitigate the rate and severity of hamstrings injuries and improve rehabilitation strategies. However, research has shown that non-modifiable risk factors may play a greater role than modifiable risk factors. Recognizing non-modifiable risk factors and understanding their implications will afford the prescription of better suited exercise programs, i.e., that are more respectful of the individual characteristics. In a nutshell, non-modifiable risk factors can still be acted upon, even if indirectly. In this context, an underexplored topic is how intra and inter- individual anatomic and physiologic variations in hamstrings (e.g., muscle bellies, fiber types, tendon length, aponeurosis width, attachment sites, sex- and age-related differences) concur to alter hamstrings injuries risk. Some anatomic and physiologic variations may be modifiable through exercise interventions (e.g., cross-sectional area), while others may not (e.g., supernumerary muscle bellies). This apparent dichotomy may hide a greater complexity, i.e., there may be risk factors that are partially modifiable. Therefore, we explored the available information on the anatomic variations of the hamstrings, providing a deeper insight into the individual risk factors for hamstrings injuries and contributing with better knowledge and potential applications toward a more individualized exercise prescription.
ISSN: 1664-042X
DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2021.694604
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIDAF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat
fphys-12-694604.pdf1.01 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
Show full item record


checked on Jun 3, 2024


checked on Jun 2, 2024

Page view(s)

checked on Jun 11, 2024


checked on Jun 11, 2024

Google ScholarTM




This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons