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Title: Microelectrode Sensor for Real-Time Measurements of Nitrite in the Living Brain, in the Presence of Ascorbate
Authors: Monteiro, Tiago
Dias, Cândida 
Lourenço, Cátia F. 
Ledo, Ana 
Barbosa, Rui M. 
Almeida, M. Gabriela
Keywords: carbon fiber microelectrodes; fast-scan cyclic voltammetry; nitrite; hippocampus
Issue Date: 17-Aug-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Project: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Young Researcher Chemistry Award 2014) 
FCT - PhD fellowship PD/BD/109687/2015 
Serial title, monograph or event: Biosensors
Volume: 11
Issue: 8
Abstract: The impaired blood flow to the brain causes a decrease in the supply of oxygen that can result in cerebral ischemia; if the blood flow is not restored quickly, neuronal injury or death will occur. Under hypoxic conditions, the production of nitric oxide (●NO), via the classical L-arginine-●NO synthase pathway, is reduced, which can compromise ●NO-dependent vasodilation. However, the alternative nitrite (NO2-) reduction to ●NO, under neuronal hypoxia and ischemia conditions, has been viewed as an in vivo storage pool of ●NO, complementing its enzymatic synthesis. Brain research is thus demanding suitable tools to probe nitrite's temporal and spatial dynamics in vivo. In this work, we propose a new method for the real-time measurement of nitrite concentration in the brain extracellular space, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and carbon microfiber electrodes as sensing probes. In this way, nitrite was detected anodically and in vitro, in the 5-500 µM range, in the presence of increasing physiological concentrations of ascorbate (100-500 µM). These sensors were then tested for real-time and in vivo recordings in the anesthetized rat hippocampus; using fast electrochemical techniques, local and reproducible transients of nitrite oxidation signals were observed, upon pressure ejection of an exogenous nitrite solution into the brain tissue. Nitrite microsensors are thus a valuable tool for investigating the role of this inorganic anion in brain redox signaling.
ISSN: 2079-6374
DOI: 10.3390/bios11080277
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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