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Title: Why Do Agroforestry Systems Enhance Biodiversity? Evidence From Habitat Amount Hypothesis Predictions
Authors: Santos, Mário
Cajaiba, Reinaldo Lucas
Bastos, Rita 
Gonzalez, Darinka
Petrescu Bakış, Alis-Luciana
Ferreira, Daniel
Leote, Pedro
Barreto da Silva, Wully
Cabral, João 
Gonçalves, Berta
Mosquera-Losada, Maria Rosa
Keywords: land-sharing; land-sparing; agroecosystems; trade-offs; landscape heterogeneity; fragmentation; biodiversity managemen
Issue Date: 2022
Project: (AFCLIMA) (CTM2016-80176- C2-1-R) from the Retos Investigación Programme 
INTERACT, Integrative Research in Environment, Agro-Chains and Technology, Project Norte 2020 45/2015/02 
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Volume: 9
Abstract: Considering the present ecological crisis, land use-biodiversity relationships have become a major topic in landscape planning, ecosystem management and ecological restoration. In this scope, consistent patterns of outstanding biodiversity have been identified in agroforestry systems within diverse biogeographic regions and types of management. Empirical work has revealed that agroforestry higher structural complexity, when compared with current simplified agricultural systems, might be partially responsible for the observed patterns. The recently developed Habitat Amount Hypothesis predicts diversity for a local habitat patch, from the amount of the same habitat within the local landscape. We have expanded the previous hypothesis to the landscape level, computing the influence of the dominant land uses on the diversity of coexisting guilds. As a case study, we have considered archetypal landscapes dominated (or co-dominated) by crops or trees, which were compared using normalized diversities. The results obtained show that agroforestry systems substantially increase functional diversity and overall biodiversity within landscapes. We highlight that the normalized values should be parametrized to real conditions where the type of crop, tree and agroecological management will make a difference. Most importantly, our findings provide additional evidence that agroforestry has a critical role in enhancing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes and, in this way, should be regarded as a priority measure in European Agri-environmental funding schemes.
ISSN: 2296-701X
DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2021.630151
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D MARE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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