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Title: Microencapsulation of hemoglobin in chitosan-coated alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification/internal gelation
Authors: Silva, Catarina 
Ribeiro, António
Figueiredo, Margarida 
Ferreira, Domingos 
Veiga, Francisco 
Keywords: Alginate; Chitosan; Internal gelation; Oral protein delivery; Microspheres
Issue Date: 2005
Citation: The AAPS Journal. 7:4 (2005) E903-E913
Abstract: Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres prepared by emulsification/internal gelation were chosen as carriers for a model protein, hemoglobin (Hb), owing to nontoxicity of the polymers and mild conditions of the method. The influence of process variables related to the emulsification step and microsphere recovering and formulation variables, such as alginate gelation and chitosan coating, on the size distribution and encapsulation efficiency was studied. The effect of microsphere coating as well its drying procedure on the Hb release profile was also evaluated. Chitosan coating was applied by either a continuous microencapsulation procedure or a 2-stage coating process. Microspheres with a mean diameter of less than 30 µm and an encapsulation efficiency above 90% were obtained. Calcium alginate cross-linking was optimized by using an acid/CaCO3 molar ratio of 2.5, and microsphere-recovery with acetate buffer led to higher encapsulation efficiency. Hb release in gastric fluid was minimal for air-dried microspheres. Coating effect revealed a total release of 27% for 2-stage coated wet microspheres, while other formulations showed an Hb release above 50%. Lyophilized microspheres behaved similar to wet microspheres, although a higher total protein release was obtained with 2-stage coating. At pH 6.8, uncoated microspheres dissolved in less than 1 hour; however, Hb release from air-dried microspheres was incomplete. Chitosan coating decreased the release rate of Hb, but an incomplete release was obtained. The 2-stage coated microspheres showed no burst effect, whereas the 1-stage coated microspheres permitted a higher protein release.
DOI: 10.1208/aapsj070488
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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