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Title: Self-Criticism and Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Emotional Experiences With Family and Peers and Self-Injury in Adolescence
Authors: Xavier, Ana 
Pinto-Gouveia, José 
Cunha, Marina 
Carvalho, Sérgio 
Keywords: Adolescence; Depression; Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI); Peer victimization; Self-criticism
Issue Date: 2016
Project: SFRH/BD/77375/2011 
Serial title, monograph or event: The Journal of Psychology
Volume: 150
Issue: 8
Abstract: Although the relationship between negative childhood experiences, peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is widely recognized, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, especially among adolescents. This study aims to test the mediating role of both self-criticism and depressive symptoms in the relationship between memories of negative or positive experiences, current peer victimization, and NSSI. The sample consists 854 Portuguese adolescents, 451 female and 403 male, with ages between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.89; SD = 1.79), from middle and secondary schools. Participants answered self-report measures. Results from path analysis showed that memories of negative experiences, the absence of positive memories with family in childhood and peer victimization indirectly impact on NSSI through self-criticism and depressive symptoms. In addition, these stressful experiences led to depressive symptoms through self-criticism. Lastly, the most severe form of self-criticism indirectly impacts on NSSI through depressive symptoms, even though it also has a strong direct effect. It suggests that negative experiences with parents and peer victimization, as well as the absence of positive memories with family, have a negative impact on NSSI when these experiences are linked with a sense of self-hatred and depressive symptoms.
DOI: 10.1080/00223980.2016.1235538
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CINEICC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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