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Title: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Animal Model Presents Retinal Alterations and Methylphenidate Has a Differential Effect in ADHD versus Control Conditions
Authors: Sanches, Eliane S. 
Boia, Raquel 
Leitão, Ricardo A. 
Madeira, Maria H. 
Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos A. 
Ambrósio, António Francisco 
Fernandes, Rosa 
Silva, Ana Paula 
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; methylphenidate; neuroinflammation; retina; visual function
Issue Date: 15-Apr-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT): PhD fellowship 2021.04797. BD, Strategic Projects UID/NEU/04539/2019 (CNC.IBILI), UIDB/04539/2020 and UIDP/04539/2020 (CIBB); COMPETE-FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007440); Centro 2020 Regional Operational Program: BRAINHEALTH 2020 (CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000008); Calouste Gulbenkian, Grant 243101 
Serial title, monograph or event: Antioxidants
Volume: 12
Issue: 4
Abstract: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, children with ADHD seem to experience more ophthalmologic abnormalities, and the impact of methylphenidate (MPH) use on retinal physiology remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to unravel the retina's structural, functional, and cellular alterations and the impact of MPH in ADHD versus the control conditions. For that, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as animal models of ADHD and the controls, respectively. Animals were divided into four experimental groups as follows: WKY vehicle (Veh; tap water), WKY MPH (1.5 mg/kg/day), SHR Veh, SHR MPH. Individual administration was performed by gavage between P28-P55. Retinal physiology and structure were evaluated at P56 followed by tissue collection and analysis. The ADHD animal model presents the retinal structural, functional, and neuronal deficits, as well as the microglial reactivity, astrogliosis, blood-retinal barrier (BRB) hyperpermeability and a pro-inflammatory status. In this model, MPH had a beneficial effect on reducing microgliosis, BRB dysfunction, and inflammatory response, but did not correct the neuronal and functional alterations in the retina. Curiously, in the control animals, MPH showed an opposite effect since it impaired the retinal function, neuronal cells, and BRB integrity, and also promoted both microglia reactivity and upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. This study unveils the retinal alterations in ADHD and the opposite effects induced by MPH in the retina of ADHD and the control animal models.
ISSN: 2076-3921
DOI: 10.3390/antiox12040937
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D IBILI - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBB - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D ICBR - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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