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Title: High rates of submicroscopic aberrations in karyotypically normal acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Authors: Othman, Moneeb A. K. 
Melo, Joana B. 
Carreira, Isabel M. 
Rincic, Martina 
Glaser, Anita 
Grygalewicz, Beata
Gruhn, Bernd
Wilhelm, Kathleen
Rittscher, Katharina
Meyer, Britta
Silva, Maria Luiza Macedo
de Jesus Marques Salles, Terezinha
Liehr, Thomas 
Keywords: Multitude multicolor banding (mMCB); Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); Cryptic rearrangements; Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH); Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA); Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Springer Nature
Project: DAAD (fellowship to MAKO and PROBRAL 57054562 to TL) 
CAPES (419/14 to MLMS) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Molecular Cytogenetics
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Abstract: Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is not a single uniform disease. It consists of several subgroups with different cytogenetic and molecular genetic aberrations, clinical presentations and outcomes. Banding cytogenetics plays a pivotal role in the detection of recurrent chromosomal rearrangements and is the starting point of genetic analysis in ALL, still. Nowadays, molecular (cyto)genetic tools provide substantially to identify previously non-detectable, so-called cryptic chromosomal aberrations in ALL. However, ALL according to banding cytogenetics with normal karyotype - in short cytogenetically normal ALL (CN-ALL) - represent up to ~50 % of all new diagnosed ALL cases. The overall goal of this study was to identify and characterize the rate of cryptic alterations in CN-ALL and to rule out if one single routine approach may be sufficient to detect most of the cryptic alterations present. Results: Sixty-one ALL patients with CN-ALL were introduced in this study. All of them underwent high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Also DNA could be extracted from 34 ALL samples. These DNA-samples were studied using a commercially available MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) probe set directed against 37 loci in hematological malignancies and/or array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 21 of 61 samples (~34 %) applying FISH approaches: structural abnormalities were present in 15 cases and even numerical ones were identified in 6 cases. Applying molecular approaches copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected in 27/34 samples. Overall, 126 CNAs were identified and only 34 of them were detectable by MLPA (~27 %). Loss of CNs was identified in ~80 % while gain of CNs was present in ~20 % of the 126 CNAs. A maximum of 13 aberrations was detected per case; however, only one aberration per case was found in 8 of all in detail studied 34 cases. Of special interest among the detected CNAs are the following new findings: del(15)(q26.1q26.1) including CHD2 gene was found in 20 % of the studied ALL cases, dup(18)(q21.2q21.2) with the DCC gene was present in 9 % of the cases, and the CDK6 gene in 7q21.2 was deleted in 12 % of the here in detail studied ALL cases. Conclusions: In conclusion, high resolution molecular cytogenetic tools and molecular approaches like MLPA and aCGH need to be combined in a cost-efficient way, to identify disease and progression causing alterations in ALL, as majority of them are cryptic in banding cytogenetic analyses.
ISSN: 1755-8166
DOI: 10.1186/s13039-015-0153-4
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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