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Title: Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data
Authors: Ribeiro, João Carlos 
Simões, João 
Silva, Filipe
Silva, Eduardo 
Hummel, Cornelia
Hummel, Thomas
Paiva, António 
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Project: E-Rare4/ 0001/2012E (EDS) 
FCT - Post Doctoral Grant 71016_2010 
Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftung (; grant number 2015_A71) 
Serial title, monograph or event: PLoS ONE
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Abstract: The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (p<0.001). Normative data for the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings.
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148937
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D IBILI - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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