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Title: Valorization of Lipids from Gracilaria sp. through Lipidomics and Decoding of Antiproliferative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Authors: Costa, Elisabete da
Melo, Tânia
Moreira, Ana S. P.
Bernardo, Carina
Helguero, Luisa
Ferreira, Isabel 
Cruz, Maria Teresa 
Rego, Andreia M.
Domingues, Pedro 
Calado, Ricardo 
Abreu, Maria H.
Domingues, Maria Rosário
Keywords: glycolipids; phospholipids; betaine lipids; seaweeds; bioactivity; mass spectrometry; hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry HILIC–ESI–MS
Issue Date: 2-Mar-2017
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UID/QUI/00062/2013 
Serial title, monograph or event: Marine Drugs
Volume: 15
Issue: 3
Abstract: The lipidome of the red seaweed Gracilaria sp., cultivated on land-based integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) system, was assessed for the first time using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS and MS/MS). One hundred and forty-seven molecular species were identified in the lipidome of the Gracilaria genus and distributed between the glycolipids classes monogalactosyl diacylglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglyceride (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyl monoacylglyceride (SQMG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglyceride (SQDG), the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), lyso-PG, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatic acid (PA), inositolphosphoceramide (IPC), and betaine lipids monoacylglyceryl- and diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethyl homoserine (MGTS and DGTS). Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects promoted by lipid extract of Gracilaria sp. were evaluated by monitoring cell viability in human cancer lines and by using murine macrophages, respectively. The lipid extract decreased cell viability of human T-47D breast cancer cells and of 5637 human bladder cancer cells (estimated half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.2 μg/mL and 12.9 μg/mL, respectively) and inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) evoked by the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (35% inhibition at a concentration of 100 μg/mL). These findings contribute to increase the ranking in the value-chain of Gracilaria sp. biomass cultivated under controlled conditions on IMTA systems.
ISSN: 1660-3397
DOI: 10.3390/md15030062
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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