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Title: The exercise sex gap and the impact of the estrous cycle on exercise performance in mice
Authors: Aguiar, Aderbal S. 
Speck, Ana Elisa 
Amaral, Inês M. 
Canas, Paula M. 
Cunha, Rodrigo A. 
Issue Date: 16-Jul-2018
Publisher: Springer Nature
Project: Prémio Maratona da Saúde, CAPES-FCT (039/2014) 
CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000008:BrainHealth 2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Scientific Reports
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Abstract: Exercise physiology is different in males and females. Females are poorly studied due to the complexity of the estrous cycle and this bias has created an exercise sex gap. Here, we evaluated the impact of sexual dimorphism and of the estrous cycle on muscle strength and running power of C57BL/6 mice. Like men, male mice were stronger and more powerful than females. Exercise-induced increase of O2 consumption ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production ([Formula: see text]CO2) were equal between sexes, indicating that running economy was higher in males. Thermoregulation was also more efficient in males. In females, proestrus increased exercise [Formula: see text]O2 and [Formula: see text]CO2 at low running speeds (30-35% female [Formula: see text]O2max) and estrus worsened thermoregulation. These differences translated into different absolute and relative workloads on the treadmill, even at equal submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 and belt speeds. In summary, our results demonstrate the better muscle strength, running power and economy, and exercise-induced thermoregulation of males compared to females. Proestrus and estrus still undermined the running economy and exercise-induced thermoregulation of females, respectively. These results demonstrate an important exercise sex gap in mice.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29050-0
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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