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Title: Squaramide-based synthetic chloride transporters activate TFEB but block autophagic flux
Authors: Zhang, Shaoyi
Wang, Yan
Xie, Wei
Howe, Ethan N W
Busschaert, Nathalie
Sauvat, Allan
Leduc, Marion
Silva, Lígia C. Gomes da 
Chen, Guo
Martins, Isabelle
Deng, Xiaxing
Maiuri, Luigi
Kepp, Oliver
Soussi, Thierry
Gale, Philip A
Zamzami, Naoufal
Kroemer, Guido
Issue Date: 11-Mar-2019
Publisher: Springer Nature
Project: S.Z., Y.W., W.X. are supported by the China Scholarship Council. G.K. is supported by the Ligue contre le Cancer (équipes labelisées); Agence National de la Recherche (ANR)— Projets blancs; ANR under the frame of E-Rare-2, the ERA-Net for Research on Rare Diseases; Association pour la recherche sur le cancer (ARC); Cancéropôle Ile-de- France; Institut National du Cancer (INCa); Fondation Bettencourt-Schueller; Fondation de France; Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (FRM); the European Commission (ArtForce); the LabEx Immuno-Oncology; the SIRIC Stratified Oncology Cell DNA Repair and Tumor Immune Elimination (SOCRATE); and the SIRIC Cancer Research and Personalized Medicine (CARPEM). P.A.G. is supported by the Australian Research Council (DP180100612). 
Serial title, monograph or event: Cell Death and Disease
Volume: 10
Issue: 3
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis is a disease caused by defective function of a chloride channel coupled to a blockade of autophagic flux. It has been proposed to use synthetic chloride transporters as pharmacological agents to compensate insufficient chloride fluxes. Here, we report that such chloride anionophores block autophagic flux in spite of the fact that they activate the pro-autophagic transcription factor EB (TFEB) coupled to the inhibition of the autophagy-suppressive mTORC1 kinase activity. Two synthetic chloride transporters (SQ1 and SQ2) caused a partially TFEB-dependent relocation of the autophagic marker LC3 to the Golgi apparatus. Inhibition of TFEB activation using a calcium chelator or calcineurin inhibitors reduced the formation of LC3 puncta in cells, yet did not affect the cytotoxic action of SQ1 and SQ2 that could be observed after prolonged incubation. In conclusion, the squaramide-based synthetic chloride transporters studied in this work (which can also dissipate pH gradients) are probably not appropriate for the treatment of cystic fibrosis yet might be used for other indications such as cancer.
ISSN: 2041-4889
DOI: 10.1038/s41419-019-1474-8
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Química - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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