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Title: Apple Pomace Extract as a Sustainable Food Ingredient
Authors: Fernandes, Pedro A. R.
Ferreira, Sónia S.
Bastos, Rita 
Ferreira, Isabel 
Cruz, Maria T. 
Pinto, António
Coelho, Elisabete 
Passos, Cláudia P.
Coimbra, Manuel A.
Cardoso, Susana M.
Wessel, Dulcineia F.
Keywords: polyphenols; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; extraction; functional food
Issue Date: 21-Jun-2019
Publisher: MDPI
Project: Thanks are due to the University of Aveiro and FCT/MCT for the financial support for the QOPNA research Unit (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2019) and to CITAB research Unit (FCT UID/AGR/04033/2019) through national funds and, where applicable, co-financed by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement, and to the Portuguese NMR Network. Pedro A. R. Fernandes (SFRH/BD/107731/2015) and Elisabete Coelho (SFRH/BPD/70589/2010) were supported by FCT/MEC grants. Claudia Passos acknowledges FCT (CEECIND/01873/2017) contract. Susana M. Cardoso thanks the research contract under the project AgroForWealth: Biorefining of agricultural and forest by-products and wastes: integrated strategic for valorisation of resources towards society wealth and sustainability (CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000001), funded by Centro2020, through FEDER and PT2020. Thanks are due to Indumape for providing the apple pomace and to project Profitapple 3862. 
Serial title, monograph or event: Antioxidants
Volume: 8
Issue: 6
Abstract: Apple pomace is a by-product of apple processing industries with low value and thus frequent disposal, although with valuable compounds. Acidified hot water extraction has been suggested as a clean, feasible, and easy approach for the recovery of polyphenols. This type of extraction allowed us to obtain 296 g of extract per kg of dry apple pomace, including 3.3 g of polyphenols and 281 g of carbohydrates. Ultrafiltration and solid-phase extraction using C18 cartridges of the hot water extract suggested that, in addition to the apple native polyphenols detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn, polyphenols could also be present as complexes with carbohydrates. For the water-soluble polyphenols, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed by inhibiting chemically generated hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and nitrogen monoxide radicals (NO•) produced in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The water-soluble polyphenols, when incorporated into yogurt formulations, were not affected by fermentation and improved the antioxidant properties of the final product. This in vitro research paves the way for agro-food industries to achieve more diversified and sustainable solutions towards their main by-products.
ISSN: 2076-3921
DOI: 10.3390/antiox8060189
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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