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Title: In Vitro Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Coffee Compounds
Authors: Coreta-Gomes, Filipe Manuel 
Lopes, Guido R.
Passos, Cláudia P.
Vaz, Inês M.
Machado, Fernanda 
Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C. 
Moreno, Maria João 
Nyström, Laura
Coimbra, Manuel A.
Keywords: coffee; polysaccharides; hypocholesterolemic effect; sequestration; bioaccessibility; NMR; lipid; bile salts; cholesterol
Issue Date: 9-Feb-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: This research was funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)/MCTES for the support to the research units QOPNA (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2019), LAQV-REQUIMTE (UIDB/50006/2020) and to the Portuguese NMR Network; and also supported by the projects PTDC/QUI-OUT/29373/2017, PTDC/DTP-FTO/2784/2014, PTDC/EQU-EPQ/29560/2017, through national funds (OE) and where applicable co-financed by the FEDER, by the Operational Program of Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI), within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. CQC research unit was financed by the project 007630 UID/QUI/00062/2019, co-funded by COMPETE2020-UE. F.M.C.-G. (SFRH/BPD/115561/2016), C.P.P. (SFRH/BPD/107881/2015), G.R.L. (SFRH/BD/104855/2014) and F.M. (PTDC/QUI-OUT/29373/2017 project) were supported by the referred individual grants by FCT. C.P.P.’s (CEECIND/01873/2017) and F.M.C.-G.’s (supported by PTDC/QUI-OUT/29373/2017 project) contracts were supported by FCT. NMR data were collected at the UC-NMR facility, supported by the following grants: REEQ/481/QUI/2006, RECI/QEQ-QFI/0168/2012 and CENTRO-07-CT62-FEDER-002012. 
Serial title, monograph or event: Nutrients
Volume: 12
Issue: 2
Abstract: (1) Background: Cholesterol bioaccessibility is an indicator of cholesterol that is available for absorption and therefore can be a measure of hypocholesterolemic potential. In this work, the effect of commercial espresso coffee and coffee extracts on cholesterol solubility are studied in an in vitro model composed by glycodeoxycholic bile salt, as a measure of its bioaccessibility. (2) Methods: Polysaccharide extracts from coffees obtained with different extraction conditions were purified by selective precipitation with ethanol, and their sugars content were characterized by GC-FID. Hexane extraction allowed us to obtain the coffee lipids. Espresso coffee samples and extracts were tested regarding their concentration dependence on the solubility of labeled 13C-4 cholesterol by bile salt micelles, using quantitative 13C NMR. (3) Results and Discussion: Espresso coffee and coffee extracts were rich in polysaccharides, mainly arabinogalactans and galactomannans. These polysaccharides decrease cholesterol solubility and, simultaneously, the bile salts' concentration. Coffee lipid extracts were also found to decrease cholesterol solubility, although not affecting bile salt concentration. (4) Conclusions: Coffee soluble fiber, composed by the arabinogalactans and galactomannans, showed to sequester bile salts from the solution, leading to a decrease in cholesterol bioaccessibility. Coffee lipids also decrease cholesterol bioaccessibility, although the mechanism of action identified is the co-solubilization in the bile salt micelles. The effect of both polysaccharides and lipids showed to be additive, representing the overall effect observed in a typical espresso coffee. The effect of polysaccharides and lipids on cholesterol bioaccessibility should be accounted on the formulation of hypocholesterolemic food ingredients.
ISSN: 2072-6643
DOI: 10.3390/nu12020437
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CQC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FCTUC Química - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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