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Title: Integrative Groundwater Studies in a Small-Scale Urban Area: Case Study from the Municipality of Penafiel (NW Portugal)
Authors: Freitas, Liliana 
Chaminé, Hélder I. 
Afonso, Maria José
Meerkhan, Helen
Abreu, Tiago 
Trigo, José Filinto
Pereira, Alcides J. S. C. 
Keywords: urban groundwater; hydrogeomorphology; hydraulics; vulnerability; GIS mapping; NW Portugal
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: SFRH/BD/117927/2016 
Serial title, monograph or event: Geosciences (Switzerland)
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Abstract: The occurrence of groundwater in urban hard rock areas is mostly controlled by secondary permeability caused by the fracturing degree and weathering grade. Vulnerability GIS-mapping, monitoring, and infiltration/recharge of water resources, and the delineation of the environmental protective background are key issues in evaluating, planning, managing, and decision-making for urban water systems. A small-scale urban area in Penafiel City was used as a case study. Historical and current scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Water sources and potential contamination sources were mapped around the study area. Groundwater is mainly acidic, with a low mineralization and a Cl-Na to Cl-SO4-Na or Cl-Ca to Cl-SO4-Ca hydrogeochemical facies. Considering potential contamination sources, the moderate and the moderate-high classes dominate the area. The combined approach of the vulnerability indexes suggests that most of the area has a low to moderate vulnerability to contamination. The Infiltration Potential Index in urban areas (IPI-urban) indicates the prevalence of a low to moderate infiltration. Groundwater recharge evaluation indicates values < 2.3 mm/year and <60 mm/year for summer and winter scenarios, respectively. Finally, the investigation addresses insights for decision-makers for the appropriate planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources in small-scale urban areas.
ISSN: 2076-3263
DOI: 10.3390/geosciences10020054
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CITEUC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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