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Title: Resistome in Lake Bolonha, Brazilian Amazon: Identification of Genes Related to Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics
Authors: Alves, Jorianne
Dias, Larissa
Mateus, Jackeline
Marques, Joana
Graças, Diego
Ramos, Rommel
Seldin, Lucy
Henriques, Isabel 
Silva, Artur M. S. 
Folador, Adriana
Keywords: Lake Bolonha; bacteria resistant to antibiotics; metagenome; resistome; β-lactams
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Project: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – CAPES 
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia – FCT 
Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação (PROPESP/UFPA) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Microbiology
Volume: 11
Abstract: Resistance to antibiotics is one of the most relevant public health concerns in the world. Aquatic environments play an important role because they are reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant strains, contributing to the spread of resistance. The present study investigated the resistome in Lake Bolonha (three sampling sites) in the Amazon region using a metagenomics approach and culture-dependent methods. Whole-metagenome-based results showed that the most abundant phyla were Protobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. The composition of the resistome demonstrated that the genes that confer resistance to β-lactams were prevalent at all sampling sites, followed by genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and tetracycline. Acquired genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (e.g., bla CTX-M) and resistance to carbapenems (e.g., bla IMP and bla VIM) were detected through metagenome analysis. Bacteria were isolated from culture medium supplemented with cefotaxime or imipenem, and isolates were identified and analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and resistance genes. In total, 98 bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (37), Acinetobacter (32), Klebsiella (13), Enterobacter (9), Pantoe (3), Stenotrophomonas (3), and Methylobacterium (1) were obtained. Among isolates, the most abundant genes were bla CTX-M (28.3%), bla SHV (22.6%) and bla TEM (18.8%) in isolates from cefotaxime-supplemented medium and bla VIM (28.8%) and bla IMP (22.2%) in isolates recovered from imipenem-supplemented medium. The genes intl1 and intl2 were detected in 19.3% and 7.1% of isolates. Antibiograms showed that 94.9% (from cefotaxime-supplemented medium) and 85.7% (from imipenem-supplemented medium) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Besides cefotaxime and imipenem, isolates were mostly resistant to aztreonam (91.8%), amoxicillin (98.8%), ampicillin (82.6%), and nalidixic acid (77.5%). Hence, the present study demonstrates that Lake Bolonha is a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and resistance genes, some of which are of critical importance to human health.
ISSN: 1664-302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00067
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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