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Title: Embryonal Masses Induced at High Temperatures in Aleppo Pine: Cytokinin Profile and Cytological Characterization
Authors: Pereira, Cátia 
Castander-Olarieta, Ander
Montalbán, Itziar A.
Pěnčík, Aleš
Petřík, Ivan
Pavlović, Iva
De Medeiros Oliveira, Eliana
Freitas Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de
Guerra, Miguel Pedro
Novák, Ondrej
Strnad, Miroslav
Canhoto, Jorge 
Moncaleán, Paloma
Keywords: abiotic stress; phytohormones; Pinus halepensis; somatic embryogenesis; TEM analysis
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: MINECO (Spanish Government) project (AGL2016-76143-C4-3R) 
DECO (Basque government, Ayudas de formación a jóvenes investigadores y tecnólogos) 
Renature: Projecto ReNature (Centro-01-0145-FEDER-000007)—Valorização dos Recursos Naturais Endógenos da Região Centro 
FCT - SFRH/BD/123702/2016 
Forest value has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programmed under agreement Nº 773324 
Serial title, monograph or event: Forests
Volume: 11
Issue: 8
Abstract: Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.), a native species of the Mediterranean region, has been suggested as a species that when introduced in degraded areas could facilitate the long-term colonization and expansion of late-successional species. Due to climate changes, plants need to withstand extreme environmental conditions through adaptation and changings in developmental pathways. Among other paths, plants undergo changes in developmental pathways controlled by phytohormones. At the same time, somatic embryogenesis has been widely used as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in plant response to di erent stresses. In this study, in order to induce a strong e ect of temperature stress on plants regenerated from somatic embryos, higher temperatures (40 C for 4 h, 50 C for 30 min, and 60 C for 5 min) than the control (23 C) were applied during the induction stage of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus halepensis. A morphological characterization of the embryogenic cultures showed small di erences in the number of starch grains, lipid bodies, and phenolic compounds between treatments. Results showed that high temperatures (60 C) led to higher rates at the maturation stage of somatic embryogenesis when compared to the control (23 C), strengthening the productivity through the increase in the number of somatic embryos obtained. Finally, analysis of endogenous concentration of cytokinins showed that di erent conditions applied during the initiation phase of somatic embryogenesis led to di erent hormonal profiles; isoprenoid cytokinins showed a clear defined pattern with the higher total hormone concentration being found in embryonal masses induced at 50 C for 30 min, while di erent aromatic cytokinins presented di erent individual responses to the treatments applied. These di erences corroborate the idea that cytokinins could be potential regulators of stress–response processes during initial steps of somatic embryogenesis.
ISSN: 1999-4907
DOI: 10.3390/f11080807
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CFE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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