Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/105364
Title: The role of social connection on the experience of COVID-19 related post-traumatic growth and stress
Authors: Matos, Marcela 
McEwan, Kirsten 
Kanovský, Martin
Halamová, Júlia
Steindl, Stanley R.
Ferreira, Nuno
Linharelhos, Mariana 
Rijo, Daniel 
Asano, Kenichi
Vilas, Sara P.
Márquez, Margarita G.
Gregório, Sónia 
Brito-Pons, Gonzalo
Santos, Paola Lucena dos 
Oliveira, Margareth da Silva 
Souza, Erika Leonardo de
Llobenes, Lorena
Gumiy, Natali
Costa, Maria Ileana
Habib, Noor
Hakem, Reham
Khrad, Hussain
Alzahrani, Ahmad
Cheli, Simone
Petrocchi, Nicola 
Tholouli, Elli
Issari, Philia
Simos, Gregoris
Lunding-Gregersen, Vibeke
Elklit, Ask
Kolts, Russell 
Kelly, Allison C. 
Bortolon, Catherine 
Delamillieure, Pascal
Paucsik, Marine
Wahl, Julia E.
Zieba, Mariusz
Zatorski, Mateusz
Komendziński, Tomasz
Zhang, Shuge
Basran, Jaskaran 
Kagialis, Antonios
Kirby, James
Gilbert, Paul 
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Project: UID/PSI/ 00730/2020 
Slovak Research and Development Agency (J.H. & M.K.; Contract no. PP-COVID-20-0074) and the Vedecka´ grantova´ agentu´ra VEGA (J.H.; Grant 1/0075/19). 
Canada - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Insight Grant (A.K., ref. 435-2017-0062). 
SFRH/BD/130677/2017 
Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (M.S.O.; Scientific Productivity Grant). 
Serial title, monograph or event: PLoS ONE
Volume: 16
Issue: 12
Abstract: Historically social connection has been an important way through which humans have coped with large-scale threatening events. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdowns have deprived people of major sources of social support and coping, with others representing threats. Hence, a major stressor during the pandemic has been a sense of social disconnection and loneliness. This study explores how people's experience of compassion and feeling socially safe and connected, in contrast to feeling socially disconnected, lonely and fearful of compassion, effects the impact of perceived threat of COVID-19 on post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic stress. Methods Adult participants from the general population (N = 4057) across 21 countries worldwide, completed self-report measures of social connection (compassion for self, from others, for others; social safeness), social disconnection (fears of compassion for self, from others, for others; loneliness), perceived threat of COVID-19, post-traumatic growth and traumatic stress. Results Perceived threat of COVID-19 predicted increased post-traumatic growth and traumatic stress. Social connection (compassion and social safeness) predicted higher post-traumatic growth and traumatic stress, whereas social disconnection (fears of compassion and loneliness) predicted increased traumatic symptoms only. Social connection heightened the impact of perceived threat of COVID-19 on post-traumatic growth, while social disconnection weakened this impact. Social disconnection magnified the impact of the perceived threat of COVID-19 on traumatic stress. These effects were consistent across all countries. Conclusions Social connection is key to how people adapt and cope with the worldwide COVID-19 crisis and may facilitate post-traumatic growth in the context of the threat experienced during the pandemic. In contrast, social disconnection increases vulnerability to develop post-traumatic stress in this threatening context. Public health and Government organizations could implement interventions to foster compassion and feelings of social safeness and reduce experiences of social disconnection, thus promoting growth, resilience and mental wellbeing during and following the pandemic.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/105364
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0261384
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CINEICC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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