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Title: Risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic - First results of the ESTSS COVID-19 pan-European ADJUST study
Other Titles: Factores de riesgo y de protección, factores estresantes, y síntomas del trastorno de adaptación durante la pandemia de COVID-19: Primeros resultados del estudio paneuropeo de COVID-19 ADJUST de la ESTSS
Authors: Lotzin, Annett
Krause, Linda
Acquarini, Elena
Ajdukovic, Dean
Ardino, Vittoria
Arnberg, Filip
Böttche, Maria
Bragesjö, Maria
Dragan, Małgorzata
Figueiredo-Braga, Margarida 
Gelezelyte, Odeta
Grajewski, Piotr
Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia
Javakhishvili, Jana Darejan
Kazlauskas, Evaldas
Lenferink, Lonneke
Lioupi, Chrysanthi
Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte
Tsiskarishvili, Lela
Mooren, Trudy 
Sales, Luísa 
Stevanovic, Aleksandra
Zrnic, Irina
Schäfer, Ingo
Adjust Study Consortium, null
Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; disaster; coronavirus; adjustment disorder; mental health; stressors; stressrelated disorders; posttraumatic stress; risk factors; protective factors; COVID-19; pandemia; desastre; coronavirus; trastorno de adaptación; salud mental; factores estresantes; trastornos relacionados con el estrés; estréspostraumático; factores de riesgo; factores protectores
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Project: Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, from the funds awarded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in the form of a subsidy for the maintenance and development of research potential in 2021 (501-D125-01-1250000 zlec.5011000638) and the Excellence initiative – research university 501-D125-20-0004316 
The data assessment in the Netherlands was supported by two insurance companies (DSW and CZ) 
Serial title, monograph or event: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Volume: 12
Issue: 1
Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective: This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results: The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to 19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work- related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions: We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.
ISSN: 2000-8066
DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2021.1964197
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CES - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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