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Title: Tumor and Peripheral Immune Status in Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Implications for Immunotherapy
Authors: Sousa, Luana Madalena 
Almeida, Jani Sofia 
Fortes-Andrade, Tânia 
Santos Rosa, Manuel 
Tavares, Paulo 
Casanova, José Manuel 
Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo 
Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma; immune monitoring; immunophenotyping; cytokines; immune checkpoints; gene expression
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Project: POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007440 
UIDB/04539 /2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Cancers
Volume: 13
Issue: 15
Abstract: Soft Tissue Sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous and rare group of tumors. Immune cells, soluble factors, and immune checkpoints are key elements of the complex tumor microenvironment. Monitoring these elements could be used to predict the outcome of the disease, the response to therapy, and lead to the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches. Tumor-infiltrating B cells, Natural Killer (NK) cells, tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), and dendritic cells (DCs) were associated with a better outcome. On the contrary, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were correlated with a poor outcome. The evaluation of peripheral blood immunological status in STS could also be important and is still underexplored. The increased lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), higher levels of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), and Tim-3 positive CD8 T cells appear to be negative prognostic markers. Meanwhile, NKG2D-positive CD8 T cells were correlated with a better outcome. Some soluble factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and immune checkpoints were associated with the prognosis. Similarly, the expression of immune-related genes in STS was also reviewed. Despite these efforts, only very little is known, and much research is still needed to clarify the role of the immune system in STS.
ISSN: 2072-6694
DOI: 10.3390/cancers13153885
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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