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Title: Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical aspects influencing skin permeation and role of SLN and NLC for skin drug delivery
Authors: Souto, Eliana 
Fangueiro, Joana F. 
Fernandes, Ana R. 
Cano, Amanda 
Sanchez-Lopez, Elena
Garcia, Maria L. 
Severino, Patrícia
Paganelli, Maria O.
Chaud, Marco V.
Silva, Amélia M. 
Keywords: Bioavailability; Dermal application; Nanostructured lipid carriers; Skin permeation; Solid lipid nanoparticles
Issue Date: Feb-2022
Project: UIDB/04469/2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Heliyon
Volume: 8
Issue: 2
Abstract: The skin is a complex and multifunctional organ, in which the static versus dynamic balance is responsible for its constant adaptation to variations in the external environment that is continuously exposed. One of the most important functions of the skin is its ability to act as a protective barrier, against the entry of foreign substances and against the excessive loss of endogenous material. Human skin imposes physical, chemical and biological limitations on all types of permeating agents that can cross the epithelial barrier. For a molecule to be passively permeated through the skin, it must have properties, such as dimensions, molecular weight, pKa and hydrophilic-lipophilic gradient, appropriate to the anatomy and physiology of the skin. These requirements have limited the number of commercially available products for dermal and transdermal administration of drugs. To understand the mechanisms involved in the drug permeation process through the skin, the approach should be multidisciplinary in order to overcome biological and pharmacotechnical barriers. The study of the mechanisms involved in the permeation process, and the ways to control it, can make this route of drug administration cease to be a constant promise and become a reality. In this work, we address the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical aspects encountered in the pathway of drugs through the skin, and the potential added value of using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid vectors (NLC) to drug permeation/penetration through this route. The technology and architecture for obtaining lipid nanoparticles are described in detail, namely the composition, production methods and the ability to release pharmacologically active substances, as well as the application of these systems in the vectorization of various pharmacologically active substances for dermal and transdermal applications. The characteristics of these systems in terms of dermal application are addressed, such as biocompatibility, occlusion, hydration, emollience and the penetration of pharmacologically active substances. The advantages of using these systems over conventional formulations are described and explored from a pharmaceutical point of view.
ISSN: 2405-8440
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08938
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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