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Title: Global hotspots for soil nature conservation
Authors: Guerra, Carlos A
Berdugo, Miguel
Eldridge, David J. 
Eisenhauer, Nico
Singh, Brajesh K
Cui, Haiying
Abades, Sebastian
Alfaro, Fernando D
Bamigboye, Adebola R
Bastida, Felipe
Blanco-Pastor, José L.
Los Ríos, Asunción de
Durán, Jorge 
Grebenc, Tine
Illán, Javier G
Liu, Yu-Rong
Makhalanyane, Thulani P
Mamet, Steven
Molina-Montenegro, Marco A
Moreno, José L
Mukherjee, Arpan
Nahberger, Tina U
Peñaloza-Bojacá, Gabriel F
Plaza, César
Picó, Sergio
Verma, Jay Prakash
Rey, Ana
Rodríguez, Alexandra 
Tedersoo, Leho
Teixido, Alberto L
Torres-Díaz, Cristian
Trivedi, Pankaj
Wang, Juntao
Wang, Ling
Wang, Jianyong
Zaady, Eli
Zhou, Xiaobing
Zhou, Xin-Quan
Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel 
Issue Date: 12-Oct-2022
Publisher: Springer Nature
Project: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/3599-PPCDT/PTDC/BIA-CBI/2340/2020/PT/Soil Ecosystems in the XXI Century: pressures, conservation and future scenarios 
Serial title, monograph or event: Nature
Abstract: Soils are the foundation of all terrestrial ecosystems1. However, unlike for plants and animals, a global assessment of hotspots for soil nature conservation is still lacking2. This hampers our ability to establish nature conservation priorities for the multiple dimensions that support the soil system: from soil biodiversity to ecosystem services. Here, to identify global hotspots for soil nature conservation, we performed a global field survey that includes observations of biodiversity (archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists and invertebrates) and functions (critical for six ecosystem services) in 615 composite samples of topsoil from a standardized survey in all continents. We found that each of the different ecological dimensions of soils-that is, species richness (alpha diversity, measured as amplicon sequence variants), community dissimilarity and ecosystem services-peaked in contrasting regions of the planet, and were associated with different environmental factors. Temperate ecosystems showed the highest species richness, whereas community dissimilarity peaked in the tropics, and colder high-latitudinal ecosystems were identified as hotspots of ecosystem services. These findings highlight the complexities that are involved in simultaneously protecting multiple ecological dimensions of soil. We further show that most of these hotspots are not adequately covered by protected areas (more than 70%), and are vulnerable in the context of several scenarios of global change. Our global estimation of priorities for soil nature conservation highlights the importance of accounting for the multidimensionality of soil biodiversity and ecosystem services to conserve soils for future generations.
ISSN: 0028-0836
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05292-x
Rights: embargoedAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CFE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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