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Title: Anti-inflammatory potential of Portuguese thermal waters
Authors: Silva, A. 
Oliveira, A. S.
Vaz, C. V.
Correia, S.
Ferreira, R. 
Breitenfeld, L.
Martinez-de-Oliveira, J.
Palmeira-de-Oliveira, R.
Pereira, C. M. F. 
Palmeira-de-Oliveira, A.
Cruz, M. T. 
Issue Date: 2020
Serial title, monograph or event: Scientific Reports
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Abstract: In light of Medical Hydrology, thermal waters (TW) are all-natural mineral waters that emerge inside a thermal resort and have therapeutic applications. Their beneficial effect has been empirically recognized for centuries, being indicated for symptom alleviation and/or treatment of several diseases, almost all associated with inflammation. Indeed, an anti-inflammatory effect has been attributed to many different Portuguese TW but there is no scientific validation supporting this empiric knowledge. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of 14 TW pertaining to thermal centers located in the Central Region of Portugal, and grouped according to their ionic profile. Mouse macrophage cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, were exposed to culture medium prepared in TW. Metabolism, nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels and the scavenging capacity of TW, were investigated in vitro. 11 out of 14 TW reduced NO production and/or iNOS expression, and/or scavenging activity, in macrophages exposed to LPS. The sulphated/calcic TW did not show any effect on at least one of the inflammatory parameters evaluated. Two sulphurous/bicarbonate/sodic TW and the sulphurous/chlorinated/sodic TW promoted an increase in NO production and/or iNOS expression. Our results validate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of Portuguese TW, supporting their therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammation-related diseases and promoting their putative application in cosmetic products and medical devices.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-79394-9
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBB - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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