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Title: Improving pollutants environmental risk assessment using a multi model toxicity determination with in vitro, bacterial, animal and plant model systems: The case of the herbicide alachlor
Authors: Pereira, Susana P
Santos, Sandra M. A. 
Fernandes, Maria A. S. 
Deus, Cláudia M 
Martins, João D 
Pedroso de Lima, Maria C
Vicente, Joaquim A. F. 
Videira, Romeu António 
Jurado, Maria Amália da Silva 
Keywords: Herbicide; In vitro toxicology; Mammalian cell viability; Plant and mitochondria toxicology; Pollutants
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2021
Volume: 286
Abstract: Several environmental pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides and persistent organic pollutants play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. However, most studies have examined environmental pollutants toxicity in target organisms or using a specific toxicological test, losing the real effect throughout the ecosystem. In this sense an integrative environmental risk of pollutants assessment, using different model organisms is necessary to predict the real impact in the ecosystem and implications for target and non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to use alachlor, a chloroacetanilide herbicide responsible for chronic toxicity, to understand its impact in target and non-target organisms and at different levels of biological organization by using several model organisms, including membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), rat liver mitochondria, bacterial (Bacillus stearothermophilus), plant (Lemna gibba) and mammalian cell lines (HeLa and neuro2a). Our results demonstrated that alachlor strongly interacted with membranes of DPPC and interfered with mitochondrial bioenergetics by reducing the respiratory control ratio and the transmembrane potential. Moreover, alachlor also decreased the growth of B. stearothermophilus and its respiratory activity, as well as decreased the viability of both mammalian cell lines. The values of TC50 increased in the following order: Lemna gibba < neuro2a < HeLa cells < Bacillus stearothermophilus. Together, the results suggest that biological membranes constitute a putative target for the toxic action of this lipophilic herbicide and point out the risks of its dissemination on environment, compromising ecosystem equilibrium and human health.
ISSN: 02697491
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117239
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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