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Title: Food Ingredients Derived from Lemongrass Byproduct Hydrodistillation: Essential Oil, Hydrolate, and Decoction
Authors: Rodrigues, Luís
Coelho, Elisabete 
Madeira, Renata
Teixeira, Pedro
Henriques, Isabel 
Coimbra, Manuel A.
Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity; aromatic plants; citral; flavor; hydrosol; matcha tea; polysaccharides; terpenes
Issue Date: 12-Apr-2022
Publisher: MDPI
Project: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UIDB/50017/2020/PT/Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UIDP/50017/2020/PT/Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UIDB/50006/2020/PT/Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry - Clean Technologies and Processes 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/6817 - DCRRNI ID/UIDP/50006/2020/PT/Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry - Clean Technologies and Processes 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/POR_CENTRO/SFRH/BD/132046/2017/PT/Enterobacteriaceae as mediators for carbapenem resistance transfer between environmental and human settings 
Serial title, monograph or event: Molecules
Volume: 27
Issue: 8
Abstract: Essential oil (EO), hydrolate, and nondistilled aqueous phase (decoction) obtained from the hydrodistillation of lemongrass byproducts were studied in terms of their potential as food ingredients under a circular economy. The EO (0.21%, dry weight basis) was composed mainly of monoterpenoids (61%), the majority being citral (1.09 g/kg). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of lemongrass EO against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Staphylococcus aureus, were 617, 1550, and 250 μg/mL, respectively. This effect was dependent on the citral content. Particularly for Gram-negative bacteria, a synergism between citral and the remaining EO compounds enhanced the antimicrobial activity. The polymeric material obtained from the nondistilled aqueous phase was composed of phenolic compounds (25% gallic acid equivalents) and carbohydrates (22%), mainly glucose (66 mol%). This polymeric material showed high antioxidant activity due to bound phenolic compounds, allowing its application as a functional dietary fiber ingredient. Matcha green tea formulations were successfully mixed with lemongrass hydrolate containing 0.21% EO (dry weight basis) with 58% of monoterpenoids, being citral at 0.73 g/kg, minimizing matcha astringency with a citrus flavor and extending the product shelf life. This holistic approach to essential oils' hydrodistillation of Cymbopogon citratus byproducts allows for valorizing of the essential oil, hydrolate, and decoction for use as food ingredients.
ISSN: 1420-3049
DOI: 10.3390/molecules27082493
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CFE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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