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|Title:||Importance of exposure route for behavioural responses in Lumbriculus variegatus Müller (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculida) in short-term exposures to Pb||Authors:||Gerhardt, Almut||Issue Date:||2007||Citation:||Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 14:6 (2007) 430-434||Abstract:||Abstract Goal, Scope and Background Lumbriculus variegatus Müller (Oligochaeta), a common freshwater sediment-dweller, has frequently been used in toxicokinetic studies, although has been less used in ecotoxicity tests. Methods For the first time the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor® (MFB) was applied in a short-term whole-sediment toxicity test. The MFB automatically and quantitatively recorded the spontaneous locomotory behaviour of Lumbriculus variegatus in exposures with two compartments, water and sediment. The study questioned, whether the animals altered their locomotion depending on the compartment which was spiked with lead (Pb). Results and Discussion As in the exposures to Pb-contaminated water/clean sediment, the animals exposed to Pb-contaminated sediment/clean water showed higher activities in intermediate Pb-concentrations. This indicates, that spontaneous locomotory activity is affected by Pb-concentrations at sublethal levels regardless of whether the Pb-concentration is found in the water or in the sediment, because these animals use both environmental compartments simultaneously. However, within the same Pb-levels, the animals showed higher locomotory activity in contaminated water compared with contaminated sediment. This indicates a possible tendency to withdraw from (‘avoidance’) contaminated water into the clean sediment compartment, whereas there was no withdrawal from contaminated sediment into clean water. The latter might be explained by the fact that withdrawal from sediment to water might increase the risk of predation and drift in nature, whereas retracting to sediment might provide shelter. Conclusions The study showed that spontaneous locomotory responses of L. variegatus to Pb depend on whether the water or sediment is contaminated. The study also concluded that the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor® can be applied effectively in sediment toxicity testing. Recommendations and Perspectives More emphasis should be given to the interactions of water/sediment in sediment ecotoxicity tests to better simulate field conditions and increase ecological realism in risk assessment, especially as quantitative recording methods exisit.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/10316/7871||DOI:||10.1065/espr2006.12.371||Rights:||openAccess|
|Appears in Collections:||FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais|
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