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Title: A new integrated photosensor for gas proportional scintillation counters based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM)
Authors: Lopes, J. A. M. 
Santos, J. M. F. dos 
Conde, C. A. N. 
Morgado, R. E. 
Keywords: Scintillation counter; Gas electron multiplier; Photo electrons
Issue Date: 1999
Citation: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 426:2-3 (1999) 469-476
Abstract: The performance of a novel integrated photosensor for use in a xenon gas proportional scintillation detector is described. Earlier integrated photo-sensor designs were limited in charge gains due to the onset of electrical breakdown, which was ascribed to optical positive feedback from scintillation photons produced in the charge amplification stage. The present design uses a gas electron multiplier (GEM) composed of a 50 [mu]m thick Kapton film with copper-plated electrode surfaces on both sides and perforated with 200 [mu]m holes at a 300 [mu]m pitch. The front surface is made photosensitive with a 150-nm-thick CsI film. When an appropriate voltage is applied between the copper electrodes, the resulting electric field directs photoelectrons produced on the front surface through the holes in the GEM and onto a wire chamber where charge amplification occurs. Optical positive feedback is essentially eliminated since the charge amplification stage is optically de-coupled from the photocathode. The GEM also provides a small amount of charge gain, up to 3.3, before the electrons enter the wire chamber where charge gains up to about 103 take place. However, the measured effective quantum efficiency, namely, the number of photoelectrons traversing the GEM holes per incident 170 nm scintillation photon, as measured under present conditions, is only about 1%. A discussion of the results is presented.
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(98)01419-3
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Física - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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