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Title: Good Environmental Status of marine ecosystems: What is it and how do we know when we have attained it?
Authors: Borja, Angel 
Elliott, Mike 
Andersen, Jesper H. 
Cardoso, Ana C. 
Carstensen, Jacob 
Ferreira, João G. 
Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina 
Marques, J. C. 
Neto, João M. 
Teixeira, Heliana 
Uusitalo, Laura 
Uyarra, María C. 
Zampoukas, Nikolaos 
Keywords: Assessment; Good Environmental Status; Descriptors; Indicators; Integration; Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Serial title, monograph or event: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Volume: 76
Issue: 1-2
Abstract: The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires EU Member States (MS) to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS) of their seas by 2020. We address the question of what GEnS entails especially with regard to the level at which targets are set (descriptors, criteria, indicators), to scales for assessments (regional, sub-divisions, site-specific), and to difficulties in putting into practice the GEnS concept. We propose a refined and operational definition of GEnS, indicating the data and information needed to all parts of that definition. We indicate the options for determining when GEnS has been met, acknowledge the data and information needs for each option, and recommend a combination of existing quantitative targets and expert judgement. We think that the MSFD implementation needs to be less complex than shown for other similar directives, can be based largely on existing data and can be centred on the activities of the Regional Seas Conventions.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.08.042
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Ciências da Vida - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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